Training Loads (Stress)
 
How athletes adapt to training and handle their training in regard to their total 24 hour day is one of the most important things that coaches and athletes must understand. The training of the neuromuscular stimuli, when applied to, generate a particular future adaptation, known as the Training Load.

There are both internal and external loads, and coaches and athletes must be able to distinguish between them.

External Load is actual physical demand placed on the body.

· Weight lifted

· Air Resistance

· Gravity

· Duration

· Intensity

· Environmental/Lifestyle Factors
 

Internal Load refers to the physiological or biochemical results of the external loading.

· Hormone Levels – noradrenalin, adrenaline, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone

· Temperature increase or decreases- Skin Temp.

· Activation of Metabolic pathways- Krebs Cycle, Energy production, Liver, Pancreas, FFA

· Accumulation of waste products in blood, muscle and urine. H ions, Co2 ect.

If optimal adaptations are to be made and overtraining syndromes are to be eliminated, coaches and athletes must be aware of the internal loading.

Although there may be an absence of external loading, internal loading and supracompensatory recovery processes might be in progress as a result of the athletes living environment.

The application of the external load and recovery is considered as a single process and constitutes a training unit.

The observation of internal markers of loading during training, competitions, and recovery helps to quantify the immediate external load and sets intensity and duration of training stresses. In training there is always a fine line between the stresses an athlete is capable of handling.
 
When reviewing the training histories of athletes, it is clear that overtraining is a problem. In each case athletes will have to reduce or stop training because of injuries or overstress syndrome. This is all because coaches and athletes fail to recognize that maximum loading should approach the capacity of the system, but should not exceed the limits for positive adaptation.
 
Study Guide:
Be able to discuss the external and internal training loads and the interrelationship between them: