Adam Van Koeverden  Olympic Gold!
Happy to say we got 114,000 hits last year. Thank you for checking in with OTS. 

I have been asked to write a Summary for a Training Template for most any endurance athlete.  So I am going to attempt that with some expert help.  As you all know I not only write blogs at OTS, I also work with Bio Mechanics and Metabolic Training utilizing Garmin and MOXY to diagnose and prescribe metabolic and neuromechanical programs to improve efficiency and performance. Keep in mind, fitness and performance, no matter how you cut and label the cake... comes down to lowering your metabolic cost of movement. 

I took this opportunities, because I am a big believer in SMART training.  Why Train Blind?  Why not recognize Total Training Time and Make the Most of It?  I have been involved in answering training questions since 1973 and the answer is always the same:  Find a System and Stick with it, diagnose, prescribe, prevent and perform! 

Watching indoor track this past weekend they mentioned what Alberto Salazar is doing in Portland taking athletes like Galen Rupp at the age of 14 and working them right through in ONE System. Salazar is doing what all of us OLD runners wish someone would have done with us, find our talent and put us on a evidence based program over the course of 10-15 years and develop fully without switching horses in the middle of every stream so to speak.

So if you had this opportunity to seize your talent would YOU?  

I ran the mile in 4:52 first time out in basketball shoes at altitude at the age of 15, but I basically lived in a Cave in Pueblo Colorado with no coaching and well I won’t go there.  But if You or I had the chance to do a program with Salazar, Lydiard, Vigil or anyone else what would it involve?  How can you take this info and help yourself now?  Help your Kid?  Be healthier or as Don Janicki and I have been kicking around run a Sub 5-minute mile at 50+ years of age.  I am trying to break 4 minutes in the Kilo for Olympic Sprint Kayak K-1.  My best is 4:25, but it is a very technical sport that I am learning and still think I can break 4 even though I am now 59 years young.  How can you get that goal?  Lower your Fat Mass?  Improve your Mile Time? Don’t think these little tests are important?  Read this Article on the Mile Run "How Fit Are YOU"? Click Here  or see Dr. Vigil Video Below:

These little test are Markers of our Health and Capacity to Perform.  Why give away things like Strength, Balance, Speed, and Endurance to Inactivity?  Young or Old there are Certain Things you MUST do to achieve your true potential.  It does not matter if you are Matt Centrowitz, Galen Rupp or Tony Montana for that matter. 

The source of our OTS Methodology has a long list of qualified supporters.  Let’s start with the Olympic Training Teams of Norway, these fine folks are known for their top Cross Country Skiers, Kayak Paddlers and Endurance athletes.  Here is what they think of Metabolic Threshold Training:
Norway is Known for It's Endurance Athletes!
As you can see they also recognize 5-distinct metabolic training zones.  Ours at OTS vary slightly because we want to pinpoint the metabolism where it makes the greatest shift in the MAJORITY of people.  For example, Dr. Vigil has stated to me and in his book that over the years testing in his Lab, when you throw out the high and low and take the average, most often LT or Lactate Threshold a Key Performance Marker occurs at 88% of Max Heart Rate.  Now I do not have a lab, but I do have a lactate monitor and have been testing for over 10 years with every day people of all talents and also find that most semi trained individuals Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation happens at 88% on average. 

We call 88%  metabolic level #4 and everything above it #5  Max to Supra-max work or NMF Neuro Muscular Facilitation, work at or above Max Metabolic Output, Efforts that Supersede the metabolism.  Like a 500 lb Bench Press or sprinting from 0-30 miles per hour of pure speed (Citius). Explosive jumps over 8 Feet straight up or 30 feet out (Altius). Short Burst's of Power, Brute force (Fortius).  There you have the Olympic Motto  Citus- Altius- Fortius..... 

Here are our 5- Metabolic Thresholds that agree with Norway, just a bit more defined:
Notice our Distribution of Training Time by Zone over Time 40% to 5%.  This will vary by point in Periodization Program
If you look closely you will see FFA is up to 75% just like Norway Points out.  They call Aerobic 75%-85% we cap it at 80% with the hope that through training you can get your body to stay fully Aerobic up to 85% but for most Mortals, 80% is a better number.  

Their Anaerobic is listed as 85%-90% once again, I would love you to stay Pre-OBLA up to 90% but Dr. Vigil's numbers and my numbers and Lydiard's numbers reflect most to go OBLA at 88%. (OBLA is Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation or Metabolic Acidosis) So we cap (Pre-OBLA) Anaerobic at 85%.  

We put LT at 88%-95% the higher you can exert without OBLA the better, but most will be between 88% and 90%  with very few as high as 95%.  

Above this you are max  to SUPRA- Max efforts of a split second to 15 seconds.
You get the drift? 

There are 5- Premium Metabolic and Neurological Training Zones to divvy UP among your total training time! 

What is your Total Training Time on a Weekly Basis?  This can be defined, since there are only 168 hours in a week and you should be sleeping at least 52.5 hours (7.5 hours a night) this leaves you 115.5 hours  to Be OLYMPIC!

Lets say you have a job or full time school that takes 8- hours a day 5 days a week (40-hours) Now you only have 75.5 hours a week  how many of them do you train?  How do you Split these hours of training among the 5 Training Thresholds?

I know HIT High Intensity Training has become popular with all those crazy Crossfit and WHOOP WHOOP "Go Girl" crazy training sessions.  Nothing wrong with HIT, but the problem and I have recorded it with our Garmin Monitors, is they do ONLY H.I.T!  It was never meant to be this way. These extremes are causing problems and the medical records at local clinics back me up on this. Just like the barefoot or minimal shoe craze, stress fractures are running rampant.  It is time to use science, diagnose your  movement and the cost of this movement metabolically and develop from the ground up.  Please take time to read this awesome article linked below.

Here is a Link to the historical training pattern of Olympic Endurance Athletes in Norway, pretty hard to argue with, see what they say about H.I.T.

Here is the Conclusion of the Report:
click to enlarge
Take a look at our Metabolic Threshold Model.  Depending on the point of the year  or position within your Periodization program you will do up to 40%-50% of training duration at FFA/Recovery, with 25% at AT, 20% at AeT (Pre OBLA)  10% at LT and 5% at NMF/SUPRA.
In a Nutshell.  
  • If you train 10 hours a week, 4-5 hours should be moving as fast as you can specific to your sport's technical bio-mechanics  at less than 75% of your max HR. We call this FFA. These are NOT junk Miles, move as fast as you can!  Just as you know your best Mile time or Kilo Time, you should know your best Mile or Kilo at 75%!!!  This is Key to Reference Point Training (RPT)
  • If you train 10 hours a week, 2.5 hours should be moving as fast as you can specific to your sport's technical bio-mechanics at up to 80% of Max Heart Rate.  What is your Reference Point? What is your best mile or Kilo, now what is your best at just 80%?  Make it BETTER and your MAX will improve!!!
  • If you train 10 hours a week, 2.0 hours should be moving as fast as you can specific to your sport's technical bio-mechanics at up to 85% of Max Heart Rate.  What is your Reference Point? What is your best mile or Kilo, now what is your best at just 85%?  Make it BETTER and your MAX will improve!!!
  • If you train 10 hours a week, 1.0 hours should be moving as fast as you can specific to your sport's technical bio-mechanics at Lactate Threshold approx 88% of Max Heart Rate.  What is your Reference Point? What is your best mile or Kilo, now what is your best at LT 88%?  Make it BETTER and your MAX will improve!!!
  • If you train 10 hours a week, 30 minutes should be moving as fast as you can specific to your sport's technical bio-mechanics at up to 100% of Max Heart Rate & short burst above speed or power.  For example if you are a 4:00 miler this is 30 seconds per 200 you may do 100's at 12-13 seconds or for a 4:00 Kilo Paddler you may do 100 meter sprints starting slow and building to a Supra max Speed of 3:30 pace! Make it BETTER and your MAX will improve!!!
  • Keep in Mind, you may say: "30 minutes a week for Max/Supra Max?
        Dr. Vigil on  the importance of Base FFA Work

Know This- there are 1,800 Seconds in 30 minutes! We are talking Max and SUPRA max efforts of no more than 15 seconds in length that is 120 bouts!!!!  Here is the problem that most often happens:  "People work too hard when they should not and TOO easy when they should be working HARD"  This leads to being Mediocre. Use your Head not Ego!

NOTE: These are just samples, specific numbers will vary depending on where you are in your periodization plan.  8 months before Championship race your % of FFA will be higher vs your SUPRA Max than 3 weeks before Championship.  Volume comes down and % of Speed goes up Slightly, not too much, but you will be hitting your planned speeds for planned outcome. 

Another beautiful reason for the Club System like Salazar has with Nike in Portland for Olympic Gold and Silver Medalist from London Mo Farah and Galen Rupp and Olympic Gold - Matt Centrowitz in Rio.  ONE System to Learn and Adapt to over the life of the athlete! In that situation you can perfect the Intensity, Duration and Frequencies to each individual.

Take the 5-Question Test and tell me how you did at 

Threshold Training Test

Question #1: We Need Low Intensity Training to?

Question #2: Most H.I.T (high intensity) programs like Crossfit or Spinn Class Lack L.I.T. low intensity training

Question #3: How Many Distinct Metabolic Training Effects are there?

Question #4: Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation Most often happens at ____% mhr

Question #5: FFA or Fat Threshold Training is at least ____% of total training time?


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